NATIONAL CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION (NCAM)
HISTORY OF NCAM
The National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) is located at kilometer 20 Ilorin-Lokoja Highway, Idofian, Kwara State, Nigeria. The Centre, which occupies a land area of about 1000 hectares, is saddled with the overall objective of accelerating the pace of mechanization in the agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy.
The establishment of NCAM was in response to the need for Nigeria to attain self-sufficiency in food and fibre production. Government was convinced of the indispensable role of agricultural mechanization to the actualization of Nigeria’s self-sufficiency in food and fibre. This, coupled with the ever-present constraints of imported agricultural mechanization technologies some of which are not compatible with Nigeria’s prevailing climatic conditions, crops and cropping patterns with their attendant poor after sales back up services, irregular supply of spare parts and other socio-economic considerations, informed the establishment of NCAM, to address these mirage of problems.
NCAM, which is the only Government owned mechanization Centre in Nigeria and Africa south of Sahara, has a peculiar overall mandate to mechanize Nigeria’s agriculture.
The specific Mandates of the Centre include:
i. to encourage and engage in adaptive and innovative research towards the development of indigenous machines for farming and processing techniques;
ii. to design and develop simple and low-cost equipment which can be manufactured with local materials, skills and facilities;
iii. to standardize and certify, in collaboration with the Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON), agricultural machines, equipment and engineering practices in use in Nigeria;
iv. to bring into focus mechanical technologies and equipment developed by various institutions, agencies or bodies and evaluate their suitability for adoption;
v. to assist in the commercialization of proven machines, equipment, tools and techniques;
vi. to disseminate information on methods and programmes for achieving speedy agricultural mechanization;
vii. to provide training facilities by organizing courses and seminars specially designed to ensure sufficient trained manpower for appropriate mechanization; and
viii. to promote cooperation in agricultural mechanization with similar institutions in and outside Nigeria and with international bodies connected with agricultural mechanization.
The Centre has the responsibility to mechanize Nigeria’s agriculture by developing simple need-based technology that reduces drudgery, increase farm productivity and improves farmers’ efficiency and their income.
NCAM, as presently constituted, is composed of nine (9) distinct departments, which subsume several distinct units and sections. Five of these departments are core technical, three pseudo-technical and one supporting. The functional departments of NCAM include:
- Farm Power and Machinery (FPM);
- Processing and Storage Engineering (PSE);
- Land and Water Management Engineering (LWE);
- Engineering and Scientific Services (ESS)
- Agro-Industrial Development and Extension (AIDE);
- Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PME);
- General Services
- Human Resources Development (HRD); and
- Finance and Accounts (F&A).
• To serve as a national and an international Centre of excellence for the development, promotion and acceleration of agricultural mechanization.
• To serve as a Centre of excellence for the improvement of agricultural machinery and equipment and quality agricultural products through employment of mechanized farming techniques.
To serve as an institution to:
- Conduct research and development into home-grown farm equipment and farm machinery systems;
- Carry out standardization, testing and certification of both the indigenously produced and imported farm machinery technologies, in collaboration with the Standard Organization of Nigeria;
- Impart need-based trainings to agricultural engineering professionals, farm machinery manufacturers etc.
NCAM has over the years recorded modest achievements in the delivery of its mandate. The Centre has made tremendous contributions to agriculture by developing indigenous technologies that reduced drudgery, increased farmers efficiency, agricultural productivity, and added value to farm products. NCAM has been critically involved in design and development of agricultural machines, tools and equipment; testing and standardization of agricultural equipments; delivery of training programmes and promotion of locally fabricated agricultural technologies from the nooks and crannies of the country. Our innovative and adaptive research activities have made remarkable impacts on both small and large scale farmers. These achievements are highlighted as follows:
The major mandate of NCAM, among others is to encourage and engage in adaptive and innovative research towards the development of indigenous machines for farming and processing techniques. Over the years, NCAM Engineers and Scientists have engaged in vigorous pursuit of this mandate, leading to publication of over 700 research works in both local and international referred journals and conference proceedings.
II. Development of Prototypes and Fabrication of Technologies
In pursuance of its mandate to design and develop simple and low-cost equipments, NCAM engineers and scientists over the years have developed a range of prototypes of simple agricultural machines, tools and equipment. These technologies cut across the value chains of root and tubers, grains and cereals, fibres, oils and fruits and vegetables. The Centre has gone further to fabricate some of these technologies, which has made tremendous impact on both small and large scale users. Some of the technologies of interest include the NCAM 3-Wheel and 4-Wheel Tractors, which has the ability to perform the operations of a conventional tractor on a smaller scale. (Please refer to NCAM Brief on PowerPoint for the pictures). The Centre has also developed a Yam Mould Making Implement, Cassava Planter, Seed Planters, Harvesters and many Processing Equipments.
NCAM has developed training facilities that are geared towards building capacities along the various needs in fast-tracking agricultural mechanization in Nigeria. The Centre has been involved in training of fabricators, tractor operators, women and youth processors, engineers, Train-the-Trainer workshop etc. The Centre has trained more than 10,000 Youths and women in the last 5years alone. Some of our trainings cover areas such as: –
- Training on agro processing and technologies.
- Training on fabrication of agricultural equipment and tools.
- Training on rice production using SAWAH Technology for rice farming.
- Training on Tractor driving, repairs and maintenance,
- Agricultural entrepreneurship and skill acquisition training.
- Entrepreneurship training on zero waste farming system
- Training on water management, irrigation and dry season farming
The Centre has conducted trainings for several organizations and group of people which include:
- Training of Niger Delta Ex-Militants under the Federal Government Amnesty Programme for Niger Delta.
- Training of rice farmer on rice production using SAWAH Technology in Niger, Ondo, Kwara, Kaduna, Ekiti, Benue, Ebonyi, Delta, Kebbi, Lagos, Cross River States and FCT.
- Training of selected fabricators on Use, Maintenance and Fabrication of Small and Medium Scale Agricultural Machines. The training was co-sponsored by ICRISAT and Agricultural Transformation Agenda Support Program (ATASP-1).
- NCAM in collaboration with IFAD-CASP executed the training of Trainees from Katsina, Jigawa, Sokoto, Kebbi, Yobe and Niger States on N-Agripreneur Training in Milling and Threshing enterprises.
- Training and Capacity Building for Tractors Operators on Operation, Maintenance and Repairs of Tractors and Equipment conducted yearly
- Training selected farmers across four participatory states (Niger, Anambra, Ogun and Benue) in Cassava Value Chain Development on How to Operate and Maintain Tractor Drawn Cassava Planter, Up-Rooter and Boom Sprayer under the sponsorship of International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
- Training on Operation, Repairs and Maintenance of Power Tiller and Mechanical Cassava Planter for Youths from 6 States under the IFAD/FGN Value Chain Development Programme.
- Training on Sorghum outreach for farmers cutting across four states (Kano, Jigawa, Binnin-Kebbi and Sokoto). The training was conducted in collaboration with International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) under ATASP – 1.
- Training and empowering programme for rice farmers in the republic of Chad. The training was organized in collaboration with the Intervention Organization for Migration (IOM). Beneficiaries came from Nigeria, Chad and Niger Republic.
- Training of Participants from West African Countries (Kenya, Uganda and Cote d’Voire) on fabrication of rice technologies under the West African Agricultural Productivity Programme (WAAPP).
- Training of Participants from 3 African countries (Kenya, Uganda and Cote d’Voire) on fabrication of rice thresher under the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF);
- Training and empowering of youths (male and female) at Ehuda Community in Ahoada Local Government Area of Rivers state on the operation and maintenance of multipurpose mill (NCAM developed hammer mill) with cyclone. It was a constituency project of an honourable member of the House of Representative.
- Youth and Gender programme of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
- Training of Youths on Agricultural Mechanization in under N-Build
- Extension of Agricultural Mechanization Technologies
- Extension and popularization of NCAM developed rice mechanization technologies in more than 18 States of the Federation. The technologies extended were hand guide rice reaper, multi-crop thresher and mini thresher. The states where these technologies were installed are listed below: –
- Sokoto, Kaduna and Kebbi States located in North-West zone of Nigeria.
- Taraba, Bauchi and Gombe States located in North-East zone of Nigeria.
- Niger, Benue and Nasarawa States located in North Central zone of Nigeria.
- Ogun, Ekiti and Oyo States located in South-West zone of Nigeria.
- Anambra, Ebonyi and Imo States located in South-East zone of Nigeria.
- Delta, Akwa-Ibom and Edo States located in South-South zone of Nigeria.
- Establishment of Combine Rice Mill Plants: The Centre has established combine rice mill plant in 6 geo-political zones of the nation by installing Alvan Blanch rice mill machines, testing and training the end users/operators. The installed Alvan Blanch combine rice mill plant are in: –
- Borno State which is located in North East zone of Nigeria
- Ogun State which is located in South West zone of Nigeria
- Kebbi State which is located in North West zone of Nigeria
- Ebonyi, State which is located in South East zone of Nigeria
- Nasarawa State which is located in North Central zone of Nigeria
- Akwa-Ibom State which is located in South South zone of Nigeria
- Extension of SAWAH Eco-Technology for rice farming: The Centre has championed the development, coordination and dissemination of SAWAH Eco-technology for increasing the rice yield of farmers in Chad Republic (Tissi, Bagasola, Haraze regions farm sites etc.) and more than 20 States of Nigeria cutting across the six (6) geo-political zones with a total of thirty (45) sites in Nigeria (see Table 1). NCAM achieved this while working in collaboration with Third National Fadama Development Project, (NFDP), the Commercial Agricultural Development Project, (CADP), the United Nations Millennium Development Villages, (UN-MDV), United Nations University, Nagoya University and Kinki University, all in Japan, as well as the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The technology has enhanced average rice yield from 4t/ha to a high yield of 10 t/ha in Ebonyi, Kebbi and Kwara states.
Table 1: SAWAH Eco-technology coverage by States
|S/N||State||Average number of Trained Farmers|
|6.||Bayelsa||Not yet covered|
|17.||Jigawa||Not yet covered|
|31.||Plateau||Not yet covered|
|32.||Rivers||Not yet covered|
- Establishment of Model Processing Centres for Cassava and Rice: NCAM has established six (6) model cassava processing and five (5) model rice processing centres in the following communities in Kwara state as presented in Table 2.
Table 2: List of Processing Centers Established by NCAM
List of Processing Centre’s established by NCAM in each of the geopolitical zone
|1.||North East||Kaddamari area of Jere LGA, Borno State.||Rice|
|Mayo-Lope, Lau LGA, Taraba State||Rice|
|2.||North West||Takalafiya, Birnin Kebbi LGA, Kebbi State.||Rice|
|3.||North Central||Agricultural Processing Zone, Lafia LGA, Nasarawa State.||Rice|
|4.||South East||Ogboji Community in Ezza North LGA, Ebonyi State.||Rice|
|ADP premises, Owerri, Imo State.||Cassava|
|Umuacha, Isialangwa South LGA, Abia State.||Cassava|
|5.||South West||Atan Area, Ijebu North-East LGA, Ogun State.||Rice|
|Isuada , Owo LGA, Ondo State.||Cassava|
|Itele, Ijebu East LGA, Ogun State.||Cassava|
|6.||South South||Ikot Essen, Ibiono LGA, Akwa Ibom State||Rice|
|Obior, Aniocha North LGA, Delta State.||Rice|
- Standardization and Test Codes
The Centre, in collaboration with the Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON), has developed seven (7) Standards and Test Codes for agricultural equipment; namely:
- Nigerian Standard Test Code for Grain and Seed Cleaners;
- Nigerian Standard Test Code for Maize Sheller;
- Nigerian Standard Test Code for Agricultural Tillage Discs;
- Nigerian Standard Specification for Agricultural Tillage Disc: Part I Concave Discs;
- Nigerian Standard Specification for Agricultural Tillage Disc: Part II Flat Discs;
- Nigerian Standard Terminology for Tillage and Tillage Equipment; and
- Nigerian Standard Test Code for Groundnut shellers.
- Tractor Testing and Certification
As part of the Centre’s mandate to test any agricultural machinery and equipment imported into the country for use in Nigerian agriculture, NCAM has evaluated 85 tractors of different make and models from 2001 to date to ascertain the claims of the manufacturers and their suitability for adoption and operations in different agro-ecologies of the country. Table 4 presents the list of tractors evaluated by the Centre. Most of these tractors evaluated by the Centre were tractors imported mainly from India and China.
- Cassava Mechanization Progamme
The Centre in 2014 has been able to establish over 2,000 hectares of mechanized cassava farms across the country for the Federal Government under the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) for cassava.
The Centre has the mandate to promote coperation and collaboration with national and external bodies connected with agricultural mechanization. In line with this mandate, NCAM has established cooperation with the following Agencies:-
- Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory, Lincoln, U.S.A.;
- Concern Tractor Plant, Russia;
- Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA);
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP);
- Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE);
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO);
- Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON);
- Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA);
- International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan;
- Chinese Academy for Agricultural Mechanization Sciences (CAAMS);
- United Nations International Development Organization (UNIDO);
- National Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture (NACCIMA);
- Universities, Polytechnics, Research Institutes etc.;
- ADPs, local fabricators, blacksmith, research institutes;
- Manufacturers and agro-processors;
- NTA, FRCN, farmer’s organizations, processors, cooperatives etc.;
- Kinki University Japan on Sawah Eco-Technology for Rice Farming;
- National Fadama Development Project (NFDP);
- Commercial Agricultural Development Project (CADP);
- Word Bank, Nigeria;
- United Millenniums Development Villages (UN-MDV);
- United Nations University;
- Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan;
- Africa Rice, Cotonou, Benin Republic;
- Competitive African Rice Initiative (CARI);
- Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD);
- Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Environment;
- Transforming Irrigation Management in Nigeria (TRIMING) Project;
- Agro-Processing Productivity Enhancement and Livelihood Improvement Support (APPEALS) Project;
- Korea Africa Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (KAFACI);
- Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA);
- United Nations – International Organization for Migration (UN-IOM);
- Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA);
- German International Cooperation (GIZ);
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD);
- United States Agency for International Development (USAID);
- International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI);
- United Kingdom Department for International Department (UK-DFID);
- Escort Group, India; and
- Kubota Corporation, Japan.
Km 20, Ilorin-Lokoja – Highway Idofian, Kwara State, Nigeria.
P.M.B. 1525, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Olaifa Taye Paul
Public Relations Officer (PRO)